自1996年出版以来 精益思想 (Womack and Jones), ‘Lean’ has established itself as the most effective and most widely adopted improvement methodology for operations in the world. With roots in the Toyota Production System and in earlier approaches, Lean has expanded vertically into accounting, marketing, HR, IT, design and R&D, and logistics, and horizontally into service, health, government，和 banking. Lean is now integrated with other effective approaches including Systems Thinking 和 Six Sigma. The Buckingham degree is titled ‘Lean Enterprise’ rather than ‘Lean Operations’ . 该 focus, however, is on integrated operations rather than on learning a range of diverse disciplines or tools.